Discovering the events attached to elements in jQuery

If you have a need to find what events are attached to an element in jQuery, here’s what you do:

Finding events attached to the document:


jQuery._data( jQuery( document )[0], 'events' );

Finding events attached to an element with an ID of bacon:


jQuery._data( jQuery( '#bacon' )[0], 'events' );

Here’s a snippet I’ve been using in the console:

var events = jQuery._data( jQuery( document )[0], 'events' );
for ( var i in events.click ) {
  console.log( 'click ' + i + ' :: ' + events.click[ i ].selector );
}

Guest Lecture: JavaScript, Ajax & DOM Manipulation

Zach has asked me to give a JavaScript guest lecture in his Web Programming class. We’ll cover: JS basics, node manipulation, DOM traversal, AJAX, JavaScript libraries, and myPlymouth implementations of those topics. Here are the slides (get the .ppt here):

A few resources that are mentioned:

Note: this is an updated talk on the workshop I led two years ago

Plymouth State: JavaScript Workshop

Tonight I led a workshop on JavaScript for some PSU Employees. We discussed JS basics, node manipulation, DOM traversal, AJAX, JavaScript libraries, and myPlymouth implementations of those topics. Here are the slides:

A few resources that were mentioned:

jQuery 1.2 Released!

This is a major release for the JavaScript library that I have grown to love. Before I list the new features, it is important to note what functionality has been removed from jQuery.

Here’s the deprecated functionality:

  • These Selectors
    • XPath Descendant Selector: $(“div//p”)
    • XPath Child Selector: $(“div/p”)
    • XPath Parent Selector: $(“p/../div”)
    • XPath Contains Predicate Selector: $(“div[p]”)
    • XPath Attribute Selector: $(“a[@href]”)
  • Calling clone() with an argument: $(“div”).clone(false);
  • These Traversal Functions use the new .slice() instead):
    • $(“div”).eq(0);
    • $(“div”).lt(2);
    • $(“div”).gt(2);
  • These Ajax Functions:
    • $(“#elem”).loadIfModified(“some.php”);
    • $.getIfModified(“some.php”);
    • $.ajaxTimeout(3000);
    • $(…).evalScripts();

Thankfully a number of those don’t effect me. I’ll have to comb through my code to get rid of the .gt, .lt, and .eq traversal functions as well as a few of the selectors…but other than that, I’m good to go. To find out more about workarounds for the above removed functionality, check the jQuery 1.2 release notes

Now…on to the good stuff.

New features!

  • Selectors
    •  :has(selector)
    •  :header
    •  :animated
    • XPath Selector Plugin
  • Attributes
    • .val() Overhaul
  • Traversing
    • .map()
    • .prevAll() / .nextAll()
    • .slice()
    • .hasClass()
    • .andSelf()
    • .contents()
  • Manipulation
    • .wrapInner() / .wrapAll()
    • .replaceWith() / .replaceAll()
    • Event Cloning
  • CSS
    • .offset()
    • .height() / .width() for document and window
  • Ajax
    • Partial .load()
    • Cross-Domain getScript
    • JSONP
    • .serialize() Overhaul
    • Disable Caching
  • Effects
    • .stop()
    • %/em Animations
    • Color Animations
    • Relative Animations
    • Queue Control
    •  :animated
    • step: Function
  • Events
    • Namespaced Events
    • .triggerHandler()
  • Internals
    • Documentation Move
    • Expando Management

I have to say…it is a pretty snazzy release and I’ll begin implementing the new version shortly. w00t.

jQuery Plugin: Live Query

My hear is exploding with happiness and joy at the existence of Brandon Aaron. He has built a sweet jQuery plugin (Live Query) that reduces complexity in Ajax and general DOM manipulation coding by a great deal (when it comes to applying behaviors). First, let me tell you the problem (if you don’t already know):

Say I build a web application where I want to assign an onClick event to an <a> tag. In jQuery I’d do it like this:

First the HTML:

<a href="another.html" class="another">Grab Another!</a>

<ul>
  <li><a href="whee.html" class="whatever">Bork</a></li>
  <li><a href="whee.html" class="whatever">Bork</a></li>
  <li><a href="whee.html" class="whatever">Bork</a></li>
</ul>

Now lets do up the JavaScript:

$(document).ready(function(){
  $('a.whatever').bind('click',function(){
    alert('ZOMG Hai');
    return false;
  });
});

Simple, right? Yeah. It is. Nothing new. Now…say that I manipulate the DOM and add in another <a> tag with the class “whatever” that I want the same even applied (with or without Ajax, doesn’t matter). Here’s what I would have had to do in the past:

$(document).ready(function(){
  $('a.another').bind('click',function(){
    $('ul').append('<a href="whee.html" class="whatever">Bork</a>');

    $('a.whatever').bind('click',function(){
      alert('ZOMG Hai');
      return false;
    });

    return false;
  });
});

See that? Kinda complex. Things become quite complex when you begin doing Cross Domain Scripting via Remote JavaScript calls (which is what is heavily used in one of the apps I have done front-end development for).

The Live Query plugin is a beautiful thing as it “auto-magically” binds events to dynamically added elements within the page as they appear! So ALL of that JavaScript from both examples becomes:

$(document).ready(function(){
  $('a.whatever').livequery('click',function(){
    alert('ZOMG Hai');
    return false;
  });

  $('a.another').bind('click',function(){
    $('ul').append('<a href="whee.html" class="whatever">Bork</a>');
    return false;
  });
});

Yup. That’s it. Bind a livequery event to an element and as elements that match appear on the page…BAM! The event is applied.

There are some more advanced things you can do with the plugin and you can find those out at the Live Query site.

Book Review: Learning jQuery

I’m a huge fan and avid user of jQuery and have been extremely impressed by the documentation provided on the jQuery website. The one thing that documentation lacks, however, is really contextual examples that drive home some bare essentials of JavaScripting with the jQuery library. Learning jQuery – a book by Jonathan Chaffer and Karl Swedberg – is an excellent introductory book for those that are thinking about using (or struggling with) jQuery.

jQuery, while a fairly high level JavaScript library is a beautiful thing but can be very daunting to a developer that is new to JavaScripting or is coming from a dissimilar library, being thrust full bore into a ‘new’ way of doing old tricks. (Which jQuery is great at by the way…it makes the new ways super sexy, sleek, and easy). The authors do a great job of explaining what jQuery is and why it is such a powerful tool.

Throughout the book are examples on traversing and manipulating the DOM, event handling, leveraging jQuery’s JS effect capabilities, AJAX, etc; many of which are built off of previously detailed examples, allowing the reader to easily grasp what is going on and why a chunk of code was used.

While I feel this book is primarily an excellent introductory source for diving into the world of JavaScript development with jQuery, the fairly seasoned jQuery user (like myself) may find a trick or two that they hadn’t quite thought of… As I read through, I found a few choice bits that allowed me to make my own code more efficient!

My only real complaint with the book is the index at the back. There are a number of jQuery functions that are discussed within the chapters yet weren’t referenced in the index. A small nitpick, I know, but I’m a sucker for a good index :)

So. Overall, I think the book is a good thing to keep on the bookshelf, whether a you are a jQuery n00b or not. There’s always a co-worker/friend/programming buddy that will want to learn jQuery and what better way to get them rolling on there own than a link to the jQuery docs and a sweet book?

You can get the book here.

Plugin: Sexy Comments v1.4 Released!

[[innerindex]]

Introduction

This has been a long time coming and I am happy to announce the release of Sexy Comments v1.4! With this version comes a lot of changes…so be sure to read the installation section! Along with simple optimizations and general restructure, the following features are now available:

Feature List

  • Ajax comment preview (new feature)
  • Author post highlighting
  • Avatars
    • Either display/hide avatars
    • Select your avatar service of choice (Gravatar and MyBlogLog options are available)
    • Specify maximum avatar dimension (Gravatar Only)
    • Customize default/trackback avatars
  • Comment Reply-To (new feature)
  • Comment Themes (new feature)
  • CSS overriding
  • “Number of Comments” message customization
  • jQuery inclusion toggling

Installation & Upgrading

  1. Download Sexy Comments v1.4 from the WordPress plugin directory
  2. Unzip that little sucker
  3. Place sexy-comments folder in your wp-content/plugins directory (it should look like this: wp-content/plugins/sexy-comments/
  4. Log in to your WordPress plugin admin page and activate the plugin.
  5. In the plugin admin page, click the SexyComments sub-menu.
  6. Customize the settings until you have something that works for you.
  7. Locate your theme’s template file that displays comments (typically comments.php). Remove the comment output loop and replace with:
    < ?php sexycomments::show($comments); ?>
    
  8. If you plan to use the Ajax features or the Reply-To features, you will need to do two things.
    1. Enable jQuery and jQuery Form Extension via the Plugin > SexyComments administration page.
    2. Locate the template file that contains the comment submission form (typically comments.php near the bottom) and replace that chunk of code with:
      < ?php sexycomments::form(); ?>
      

    NOTE: Be sure not to touch the section that generates the form for adding comments! This plugin does not re-create the comment creation form.

  9. Lastly, consider disabling the plugin CSS and taking the example CSS provided and customize it to suit your theme’s color scheme.
  10. You should be all set, now! w00t w00t! Go make a MyBlogLog or Gravatar account if you don’t already have one and upload an avatar. Gravatar tends to be pretty flakey so I’d suggest using MyBlogLog.

FAQs

  • Q: What is this “comment loop” you speak of?

    A: Ah, yes. That thing. Well, its anatomy looks similar to this (there will be some variation from theme to theme):

    < ?php if ($comments) : ?>
    	<!-- some HTML is typically here -->
    
    	< ?php foreach ($comments as $comment) : ?>
            <!-- the output HTML of each individual comment -->
    
    	< ?php endforeach; /* end for each comment */ ?>
    	<!--...more HTML -->
     < ?php else : // this is displayed if there are no comments so far ?>
    	< ?php if ('open' == $post->comment_status) : ?>
    		<!-- typically a blank area or a place with a comment -->
    	 < ?php else : // comments are closed ?>
    		<!-- closed comments section -->
    	< ?php endif; ?>
    < ?php endif; ?>
    
    
  • Q: Ok…so I just upgraded to a new version and there is nothing in the SexyComments admin page…WTF?

    A: Yeah. Sorry about that. In this version, the directory structure has changed drastically and Sexy Comments should no longer live in wp-content/plugins/sexycomments.php OR wp-content/plugins/sexycomments/sexycomments.php, but instead it should be in wp-content/plugins/sexy-comments/. Make sure that the plugin is in the correct location of your plugins directory.

  • Q: What happened to sexycomments_print($comments)? I used to use that to get my comments to display…will it still work?

    A: Along with a directory structure overhaul, this version had a large code overhaul as well. The old function (sexycomments_print) is deprecated but will still work for the time being. I greatly urge you to move over to the new function call sexycomments::show($comments) as that is the new *impoved* function.

jQuery 1.1.3: Speed Improvements and Bug Fixes

After a long wait, jQuery 1.1.3 has been released! (Download it at the jQuery site) When I first adopted jQuery a year ago, the library boasted both faster speeds and smaller size than any other JavaScript Ajax/DOM tool. With the release of jQuery’s version 1.1.2, a number of jQuery’s operations became very slow and inefficiencient, as evidenced by MooTool’s SlickSpeed CSS Selector Test (found via Ajaxian) which crept up a few weeks ago.

This new release boasts an 800% speed improvement with a number of its selectors along with various enhancements across the board! The selector speed boost makes me one happy camper. Check out the enhancements as it compares to 1.1.2:

Browser jQuery 1.1.2 jQuery 1.1.3 % Improvement
IE 6 4890ms 661ms 740%
Firefox 2 5629ms 567ms 993%
Safari 2 3575ms 475ms 753%
Opera 9.1 3196ms 326ms 980%
Average improvement: 867%

And here’s how it now stacks up against the SlickSpeed test:

Browser Prototype jQuery Mootools Ext Dojo
IE 6 1476ms 661ms 1238ms 672ms 738ms
Firefox 2 219ms 567ms 220ms 951ms 440ms
Safari 2 1568ms 475ms 909ms 417ms 527ms
Opera 9.1 220ms 326ms 217ms 296ms 220ms

In addition to the speed enhancements, there were several other notable things:

  • Unicode Selectors: Yup…now you can use fancy non-english characters.
  • Escape Selectors: This is awesome. Now, if you use weird characters (i.e. punctuation) in a class/id name, you can now escape those characters within the selector syntax. E.g. $(“div#foo\.bar”)
  • Inequality Selector: You can now select elements where their attributes do not match a specific string of characters. E.g. $(“div[@id!=test]”)
  • :nth-child() improvements: jQuery has supported selectors like :nth-child(1) and :nth-child(odd) since the beginning of jQuery, now they’ve added advanced :nth-child selectors, such as:
    • $(“div:nth-child(2n)”)
    • $(“div:nth-child(2n+1)”)
    • $(“div:nth-child(n)”)
  • Space-separated attributes: After being removed in jQuery 1.0, this selector has now been brought back by popular demand. It allows you to locate individual items in a space-separated attribute (such as a class or rel attribute). E.g. $(“a[@rel~=test]”)
  • Animation Improvements: Animations are now significantly faster and smoother. Additionally, you can run more simultaneous animations without incurring any speed hits.
  • DOM Event Listeners: Internally, the jQuery Event system has been overhauled to use the DOM Event system, rather than the classical “onclick” style of binding event handlers. This improvement allows you to be more unobtrusive in your use of the library (not affecting the flow of other libraries around it). Additionally, it helped to resolve some of the outstanding issues that existed with binding event listeners to IFrames.
  • Event Normalization: Some great steps have been taken to normalize keyboard and mouse events. You can now access the event.which property to get most details about the specific key or button that was pressed.
  • Multiple .is(): The .is() method can now take multiple selectors, separated by a comma. This allows you to test your jQuery set against multiple selectors. E.g. $(“div”).is(“:visible, :first”)
  • Browser Version: A commonly requested feature, by plugin authors, was a way to determine what browser version their users were using. We now expose an extra property through which this information can be accessed. E.g. jQuery.browser.version

Additionally, the jQuery team has addressed 80+ bugs and has roadmapped out the next two releases (v1.1.4 and v1.2). To check out the full jQuery 1.2 roadmap, go here.

jQuery 1.1a Released

The jQuery 1.1a has been released today by the jQuery team! Its important to note that this is an alpha version before you go out and install it in a production environment, but the jQuery team asks that people give it a round of testing prior to the release this weekend.

The “Quick and Dirty” on v1.1:

  • Its selectors are 10-20x faster than those in jQuery 1.0.4.
  • The documentation has been completely revamped.
  • The complexity of the API has dropped by 47%.
  • It has a ton of bug fixes.
  • It has a bunch of great new features.
  • … and it’s still the small 19KB that you’ve come to expect.

With this release come a lot of API changes:

Firstly, :nth-child() now starts at 1, instead of 0.

A number of methods have been re-organized/re-named. Here’s the translation of old to new functions:

Old Way (1.0.x) New Way (1.1)
.ancestors() .parents()
.width() .css(”width”)
.height() .css(”height”)
.top() .css(”top”)
.left() .css(”left”)
.position() .css(”position”)
.float() .css(”float”)
.overflow() .css(”overflow”)
.color() .css(”color”)
.background() .css(”background”)
.id() .attr(”id”)
.title() .attr(”title”)
.name() .attr(”name”)
.href() .attr(”href”)
.src() .attr(”src”)
.rel() .attr(”rel”)
.oneblur(fn) .one(”blur”,fn)
.onefocus(fn) .one(”focus”,fn)
.oneload(fn) .one(”load”,fn)
.oneresize(fn) .one(”resize”,fn)
.onescroll(fn) .one(”scroll”,fn)
.oneunload(fn) .one(”unload”,fn)
.oneclick(fn) .one(”click”,fn)
.onedblclick(fn) .one(”dblclick”,fn)
.onemousedown(fn) .one(”mousedown”,fn)
.onemouseup(fn) .one(”mouseup”,fn)
.onemousemove(fn) .one(”mousemove”,fn)
.onemouseover(fn) .one(”mouseover”,fn)
.onemouseout(fn) .one(”mouseout”,fn)
.onechange(fn) .one(”change”,fn)
.onereset(fn) .one(”reset”,fn)
.oneselect(fn) .one(”select”,fn)
.onesubmit(fn) .one(”submit”,fn)
.onekeydown(fn) .one(”keydown”,fn)
.onekeypress(fn) .one(”keypress”,fn)
.onekeyup(fn) .one(”keyup”,fn)
.oneerror(fn) .one(”error”,fn)
.unblur(fn) .unbind(”blur”,fn)
.unfocus(fn) .unbind(”focus”,fn)
.unload(fn) .unbind(”load”,fn)
.unresize(fn) .unbind(”resize”,fn)
.unscroll(fn) .unbind(”scroll”,fn)
.ununload(fn) .unbind(”unload”,fn)
.unclick(fn) .unbind(”click”,fn)
.undblclick(fn) .unbind(”dblclick”,fn)
.unmousedown(fn) .unbind(”mousedown”,fn)
.unmouseup(fn) .unbind(”mouseup”,fn)
.unmousemove(fn) .unbind(”mousemove”,fn)
.unmouseover(fn) .unbind(”mouseover”,fn)
.unmouseout(fn) .unbind(”mouseout”,fn)
.unchange(fn) .unbind(”change”,fn)
.unreset(fn) .unbind(”reset”,fn)
.unselect(fn) .unbind(”select”,fn)
.unsubmit(fn) .unbind(”submit”,fn)
.unkeydown(fn) .unbind(”keydown”,fn)
.unkeypress(fn) .unbind(”keypress”,fn)
.unkeyup(fn) .unbind(”keyup”,fn)
.unerror(fn) .unbind(”error”,fn)

What’s more? Well, the jQuery team will be posting throughout the week on all the cool new things you can do with jQuery 1.1. I’m looking forward to seeing the changes! Oh, with regards to changes, its important to note with that list of functions above…the old method will no longer work come v1.1. To keep those functions in use, a ‘helper’ library will need to be used…chances are that won’t be available until the 1.1 final.

jQuery 1.0.4 Released

John Resig over at jQuery has announced the release of jQuery 1.0.4 to the public! As usual, there are bug fixes…plus a bit more. His focus for this patch was adding improvements to jQuery’s Ajax functionality. Below is a list of all the updates:

  • Tons of bug fixes (Full List)
  • Extensions to $.ajax(): $.ajax accepts additional options: beforeSend, async and processData; returns XMLHttpRequest to allow manual aborting of requests, see docs for details.

    Example: Add extra headers to an Ajax request using beforeSend

    $.ajax({
      type: "POST",
      url: "/files/add/",
      beforeSend: function(xhr) {
        xhr.setRequestHeader( "Content-type", "text/plain" );
      },
      data: "This is the contents of my text file."
    });

    Example: Perform a synchronous Ajax request.

    // Get the HTML of a web page and save it
    // to a variable (the browser will freeze until the
    // entire request is completed).
    var html = $.ajax({
      type: "GET",
      url: "test.html",
      async: false
    }).responseText;
    
    // Add the HTML into the page
    $("#list").html( html );

    Example: Sending a JavaScript object using processData.

    // The data to send to the server
    var params = {
      name: "John",
      city: "Boston"
    };
    
    $.ajax({
      type: "POST",
      url: "/user/add/",
      processData: params
    });

    Example: Aborting an Ajax request after a specific delay in time.

    // Perform a simple Ajax request
    var req = $.ajax({
      type: "GET",
      url: "/user/list/",
      success: function(data) {
        // Do something with the data...
        // Then remove the request.
        req = null;
      }
    });
    
    // Wait for 5 seconds
    setTimeout(function(){
      // If the request is still running, abort it.
      if ( req ) req.abort();
    }, 5000);
  • AJAX module: The public $.ajax API is now used internally (for $.get/$.post etc.); loading scripts works now much more reliably in all browsers (with the exception of Safari, which is a work in progress).
  • New global Ajax handler: ajaxSend – called before an Ajax request is sent.

    Example: Add extra headers to all Ajax requests using the ajaxSend event.

    $(document).ajaxSend(function(xhr){
      xhr.setRequestHeader("X-Web-Request", "MySite.com");
    });
  • Extensions to global Ajax handlers: ajaxSend, ajaxSuccess, ajaxError and ajaxComplete get XMLHttpRequest and settings passed as arguments.

    Example: Prevent any POST requests that are sending too much data.

    $(document).ajaxSend(function(xhr,options){
      if ( options.type == "POST" &#038;&#038; options.data.length > 1024 )
        xhr.abort();
    });

    Example: Show a special message for requests submitted using an Ajax POST.

    $("#dataSent").ajaxSend(function(xhr,options){
      if ( options.type == "POST" )
        $(this).show();
    });
  • Extensions to event handling: pageX and pageY are available in all browsers now. (IE does not provide native pageX/Y).

    Example: Have a tooltip follow a user’s mouse around the page.

    $(document).mousemove(function(e){
      $("#mousetip").css({
        top: e.pageY + "px",
        left: e.pageX + "px"
      });
    });
  • Improved docs: $(String) method has now two separate descriptions, one for selecting elements, one for creating html on-the-fly.
  • FX module: Most inline styles added by animations are now removed when the animation is complete, eg. height style when animating height (exception: display styles).

Visual JQuery

jquery After my excitement about jQuery since The Ajax Experience, one of my fellow developers at PSU has been checking the toolkit out. In her searches for documentation found Visual jQuery, a nice graphical/textual categorized API for the jQuery toolkit! Its a pretty snazzy learning tool if you aren’t already familiar with all the functions jQuery has to offer (found in the jQuery API).

I’ll be using Visual jQuery to explore to toolkit and see what it has to offer and using the JQuery API for quick syntax lookup.

Oh, and on a side note, the people over at Visual jQuery have begun a jQuery magazine in pdf format…pretty neat-o.

The Ajax Experience: jQuery Toolkit

jquery I went to The Ajax Experience with high expectations of catching some great tips regarding development in an Ajax environment. At the same time, I was sure of my previous decision with the use of Prototype and Script.aculo.us was as good as it gets (without diving into the widgetized world…e.g. Dojo). I attended John Resig‘s presentation on jQuery and I became a convert.

John’s presentation was less of a presentation and more of a Q&A Demonstration, which suited me fine. As soon as I knew where to download the code, I popped open my laptop and started fiddling around with the toolkit – passively paying attention to the questions and answers, as they tended to be extremely basic questions…you see, jQuery is pretty darn intuitive.

jQuery’s mantra is “Find stuff and do stuff to it”

Yeah, I wasn’t converted because jQuery was the first toolkit to support chaining and that it executes it nicely. Nor was I converted because of its extensive plugin library. Nope. My conversion was the effecient findability of elements within the DOM! This is what really makes jQuery ballsy. The toolkit was built with findability in mind using already established standards! jQuery fully supports CSS1, CSS2, CSS3, and basic XPath when hunting for elements. For example:

Lets start with something simple:
Say I wanted to find all elements within the page that had the class: bork and hide them, I’d do:

$('.bork').hide();

Alright, say I wanted to find all anchor tags with the target set to _blank and add the class whee to it:

$('a[@target=_blank]').addClass('whee');

Now, lets say I want to find all anchor tags with the target set to _blank and add the class whee to them AND append (opens in a new window) as a sibling to the link itself.

$('a[@target=_blank]').each(
  function(){
    $(this).addClass('whee');
    $(this).after('(Opens in a new window)');
  }
);

Now, if I knew I was going to use the above a whole lot all over hell’s half acre, I could create a jQuery plugin that can be chained! Here’s how I’d create that feature and allow for the passing of class name:

jQuery.fn.opensInNewWindow = function(classname){
	return this.each(
		function(){
                        $(this).addClass(classname);
                        $(this).after('(Opens in a new window)');
		}
	);
};

Now, when I want to put Opens in a new window on a series of elements, I can do so with my newly created plugin:

$('a[@target=_blank]').opensInNewWindow('whee');

//I can do this for ANY element I want even if it isn't a link
$('span.bork').opensInNewWindow('zomg');
$('div#w00t ul.nav').opensInNewWindow('roflcopter');

Now, to make use of the chainability, you can write the plugin more simply than what I did up above. You can do this: (thanks to malsup, a commenter on this article)

jQuery.fn.opensInNewWindow = function(classname){
	return this.each(
		function(){
      $(this).addClass(classname).after('(Opens in a new window)');
		}
	);
};

Cake walk. As your proficiency in finding objects within a page increases, your code will become shorter.

jQuery currently has a very active community and mailing list (averaging at about 90 posts per day) so if you have questions regarding the toolkit, you can become a member and ask away… In addition, there’s a jQuery blog where John posts comparison code showing the difference between jQuery and other available toolkits. (here’s a Zebra striping example)

If you are still on the hunt for a JavaScript toolkit for Ajax, DOM manipulation, etc or you find your toolkit of choice too clunky, give jQuery a shot. You’ll be pleased with the results.